Sunday, 4 December 2016

A WINDOW ON HMS TERROR

There are few secret places left to be explored in the world; but there is one waiting under the waters of Terror Bay.

The announcement that HMS Terror was recently found "in pristine condition" is astonishing, yet the revelation that the ship's stern lights (stern cabin windows) have survived intact is especially poignant.  Behind those 171-year-old stern lights is the very definition of a secret space; the cabin where Captain Crozier received reports and dispatched orders; where he entertained Franklin, Fitzjames and his officers in the better days; and where he huddled over his charts, plotting and planning his men’s desperate escape from the ice.

By 1845, Terror’s stern windows were very different from those Captain John Sheridan gazed through as he bombarded Baltimore in 1814. In 1812, Henry Peake designed a relatively traditional stern gallery for HMS Terror, which included seven stern lights in addition to six windows arranged on her port and starboard quarter galleries. Each of the stern windows had nine panes, while the smaller quarter gallery windows had six panes.

Henry Peake's original 1812 design for Terror's stern gallery and quarter galleries.
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When Terror was first converted for polar service over 1835 and 1836, its vulnerable quarter galleries (and the water closets they contained) were removed, resulting in a reduction to five stern windows. Contemporary artwork by Owen Stanley indicates that the windows retained their original nine-pane configuration during Back's harrowing Arctic expedition of 1836-1837.


Terror's stern lights in 1837. Note the cipher and ship's name depicted above the hanging rudder.
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Since the time of Parry’s second Arctic voyage, 24 years previously, polar exploration vessels had been fitted with "double window-frames" (1), and Terror undoubtedly had double windows installed for Back’s 1836 -1837 Arctic voyage. Parry described that during the coldest months, "cork shutters" were inserted between the sashes on HMS Hecla (1), and it is possible that cork shutters were used on Terror’s subsequent polar voyages.

Contemporary images suggest that Terror's stern gallery remained unchanged during the Antarctic expedition of 1839-1843, when Terror was under the command of Francis R.M. Crozier, although the 1839 Terror and Erebus plans indicate that significant changes were made to the great cabin itself.

In the spring of 1845, Terror and Erebus had their sterns dismantled and reconstructed to accommodate large wells needed to raise and lower their new screw propellers. The centre window on the stern of each vessel was removed to make room for the new well. Green-ink annotations on Terror’s 1836 plans show that her stern frames were shifted slightly forward during the 1845 refit. The reasons for such an extensive refit are unclear, but it may have been necessary to redesign the stern framing to accommodate the weight and stress of the new propeller system.

While it appears that the remaining four stern windows were kept (roughly) in their original positions in 1845, the windows themselves were redesigned from a nine-pane to a four-pane configuration. We know this because of a remarkable woodcut of the great cabin of HMS Erebus, which appeared in the May 24th, 1845 issue of the Illustrated London News (2). The accompanying article described that the windows were “double[d]”, similar to those used on Parry’s voyages. Astonishingly, high resolution images of the cabin illustration in the report clearly show the double sashes.



The Great Cabin of HMS Erebus, as depicted in a woodcut
from the May 24th, 1845 edition of the Illustrated
London News


Why the stern lights were modified to a four-pane design is unknown, but the woodcut indicates that by 1845 the window muntins were much more robust than those on a typical stern window. A sturdier design might have been thought necessary, after the unprecedented heavy seas and storms Terror and Erebus encountered during their Antarctic expedition.  However, we know that the thickness of the glass was not increased, because window glass recovered from HMS Erebus in 2015 has the same  thickness as that specified on Terror’s (i.e., Belzebub’s) original 1812 building contract (3).

Below, I’ll outline how I have recreated Terror’s windows for my model. Though few pictures have been released, they appear to compare well with the recent Parks Canada images of Terror’s stern. The great cabin on the other side of those windows was the nerve-center of the living ship, where all the achievements, misfortunes, and decisions of the expedition were debated, decided, and recorded. In the coming years, it is a place where all the expedition’s mysteries may be revealed.

References:

(1) Parry, William Edward. 1824. Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-west Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific: Performed in the Years 1821- 22-23, in His Majesty's Ships Fury and Hecla, Under the Orders of Captain William Edward Parry, R.N., F.R.S., and Commander of the Expedition. London.

(2) Departure of the “Erebus” and “Terror” on the Arctic Expedition. Illustrated London News, May 24th, 1845. Volume 6, Page 328.


(3) National Maritime Museum, ADT0010


Construction of the stern windows began with laser cutting the
sashes from a sheet of Swiss pear. 

A bevel was added to each muntin with a hand file. The filed
windows are on the left, the unfinished windows are on the right. 

Comparing progress to the original woodcut. 

Instead of adding four individual panes, I opted to add a single simulated pane.
This was achieved by carving out the backside of the windows to
accept the simulated glass. 

The window panes were made from high quality PVC blister packaging material.
It is crystal clear, resists yellowing, and bonds well with CA glue. The painter's
tape protects the surface from scratches and permits patterns to be drawn
on the surface. 

A beading line of CA was used to glue the panes in place. 

Allowing the glue to dry. 

A pair of finished windows compared to the woodcut. Note the double
sashes in the woodcut image. 

Gluing the sills to the sashes. These are not the proper configuration,
but will not be visible on the finished model. 

A nickle for scale. 


The completed double windows.  

A closeup view.

The interior panes were sanded to simulate frost (and to prevent a
view into the interior of the model). 

The port stern lights installed between the stern frames. 

A view from the interior of the model. The imposing nature of the
well can be seen here.  

Approximating the view from the great cabin
(as best possible).

The completed stern gallery. 

Mini-Cozier surveys the pack from the comfort of his great cabin.  


48 comments:

  1. Excellent work! I love reading about the work you do.
    Since the inside windows were sanded to simulate frost, does that mean the window edges on Terror in 1845 were drafty? I wonder since Parry's voyage with the Sylvester Stove kept his ship quite warm.

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    1. It has more to do with me not wanting people to see the inside of my model, which won't be finished! I suspect there was some frost, just like in houses of the era, but like you, I believe the ships were actually quite warm as long as they had coal stores.

      Thanks for reading and for your great comment!

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  24. Hello world, i want to share my testimony on how i got my BLANK ATM card which have change my life today. i was once living on the street where by things were so hard for me, even to pay off my bills was very difficult for me i have to park off my apartment and start sleeping on the street of Vegas. i tried all i could do to secure a job but all went in vain because i was from the black side of America. so i decided to browse through on my phone for jobs online where i got an advert on Hackers advertising a Blank ATM card which can be used to hack any ATM Machine all over the world, i never thought this could be real because most advert on the internet are based on fraud, so i decided to give this a try and look where it will lead me to if it can change my life for good. i contacted this hackers and they told me they are from UK and also they have branch all over the world in which they use in developing there ATM CARDS, this is real and not a scam it have help me out. to cut the story short this men who were geeks and also experts at ATM repairs, programming and execution who taught me various tips and tricks about breaking into an ATM Machine with a Blank ATM card.i applied for the Blank ATM card and it was delivered to me within 3 days and i did as i was told to and today my life have change from a street walker to my house, there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software before it will be send to you. my life have really change and i want to share this to the world, i know this is illegal but also a smart way of living Big because the government cannot help us so we have to help our self. if you also want this BLANK ATM CARD i want you to contact the Hackers email address on atmmachinehackers1991@yahoo.com and you life will never remain the same

    ReplyDelete
  25. Good day,

    I am Mr Steve Hamson, a private loan lender who gives out loan to individuals, companies, and government establishments at a low interest rate of 2%. We know that

    there are lots of families out there who live on pay check to pay check and others that cannot take care of their financial obligations so this is the reason why this

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    God Bless You All,
    Steve Hamson.

    ReplyDelete

  26. Hello world, i want to share my testimony on how i got my BLANK ATM card which have change my life today. i was once living on the street where by things were so hard for me, even to pay off my bills was very difficult for me i have to park off my apartment and start sleeping on the street of Vegas. i tried all i could do to secure a job but all went in vain because i was from the black side of America. so i decided to browse through on my phone for jobs online where i got an advert on Hackers advertising a Blank ATM card which can be used to hack any ATM Machine all over the world, i never thought this could be real because most advert on the internet are based on fraud, so i decided to give this a try and look where it will lead me to if it can change my life for good. i contacted this hackers and they told me they are from UK and also they have branch all over the world in which they use in developing there ATM CARDS, this is real and not a scam it have help me out. to cut the story short this men who were geeks and also experts at ATM repairs, programming and execution who taught me various tips and tricks about breaking into an ATM Machine with a Blank ATM card.i applied for the Blank ATM card and it was delivered to me within 3 days and i did as i was told to and today my life have change from a street walker to my house, there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software before it will be send to you. my life have really change and i want to share this to the world, i know this is illegal but also a smart way of living Big because the government cannot help us so we have to help our self. if you also want this BLANK ATM CARD i want you to contact the Hackers email address on atmmachinehackers1991@yahoo.com and you life will never remain the same

    ReplyDelete

  27. Hello world, i want to share my testimony on how i got my BLANK ATM card which have change my life today. i was once living on the street where by things were so hard for me, even to pay off my bills was very difficult for me i have to park off my apartment and start sleeping on the street of Vegas. i tried all i could do to secure a job but all went in vain because i was from the black side of America. so i decided to browse through on my phone for jobs online where i got an advert on Hackers advertising a Blank ATM card which can be used to hack any ATM Machine all over the world, i never thought this could be real because most advert on the internet are based on fraud, so i decided to give this a try and look where it will lead me to if it can change my life for good. i contacted this hackers and they told me they are from UK and also they have branch all over the world in which they use in developing there ATM CARDS, this is real and not a scam it have help me out. to cut the story short this men who were geeks and also experts at ATM repairs, programming and execution who taught me various tips and tricks about breaking into an ATM Machine with a Blank ATM card.i applied for the Blank ATM card and it was delivered to me within 3 days and i did as i was told to and today my life have change from a street walker to my house, there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software before it will be send to you. my life have really change and i want to share this to the world, i know this is illegal but also a smart way of living Big because the government cannot help us so we have to help our self. if you also want this BLANK ATM CARD i want you to contact the Hackers email address on atmmachinehackers1991@yahoo.com and you life will never remain the same

    ReplyDelete
  28. Mr Dickson Intelligent Blank ATM Cards Which Have Been Specially Programmed Atm Card Contact Email Dicksonblankatmhacker@gmail.com

    I am announcing this amazing testimonial on this blog, about Mr Dickson how the Blank ATM Card experience changed my whole life.the 2017 blank Atm Programmed Card and cash money directly in any ATM Machine around you. There is no risk of being caught, because the card has been programmed in such a way that it´s not traceable,so luckily i read about the blank ATM card exercise and how it has made people become rich. I contacted the email address i attached to the testimonial of some beneficiaries and here i am today, all thanks to Global Tech Hackers Team Incorporation world wide for helping me with a blank ATM Card. Now all my financial worries are over. All you need to do is send a message to the email address provided: dicksonblankatmhacker@gmail.com ..

    ReplyDelete
  29. MANY IMPOST AS HACKERS ONLINE, FRIENDS BEWARE. IF YOU NEED A GENUINE AND PROFESSIONAL HACKING SERVICES KINDLY CONTACT NOBLEWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM
    They are professional group of hackers based in Europe,Asia,UAE,North America. They are the best hackers and also software developers to penetrate any websites at all, all other hackers contact them for best Algorithm Software.Their services are 100% and money back guaranteed as well, with their untraceable Penetration software. They offer the following services;

    -SPYWARE FOR ALL SOCIAL MEDIA CONVERSATIONS
    -Itune card hacking
    -Removal of old credit score
    -University grades changing
    -Bank accounts hack
    -Erase criminal records hack
    -Facebook hack
    -Twitters hack
    -email accounts hack
    -Grade Changes hack
    -Website crashed hack
    -server crashed hack
    -Skype hack
    -Databases hack
    -Word Press Blogs hack
    -Individual computers hack
    -Control devices remotely hack
    -Burner Numbers hack
    -Verified Paypal Accounts hack
    -Any social media account hack
    -Android & iPhone Hack
    -Text message interception hack
    -email interception hack
    - credit card for free online transactions
    -Sales of Blank Atm card and Credit card
    -Untraceable Ip etc.
    Contact them at NOBLEWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM for more inquiries and you will never regret any of their services. Friends i refer you to them trust me.

    ReplyDelete
  30. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN, CHECK OUT THE BLANK ATM CARD IN LESS THAN 24hours {blankatmhaker@gmail.com}Am Mark Oscar,I want to testify about Jack Robert blank ATM cards which can withdraw money from any ATM machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no hope then I saw so many testimony about how Jack Robert send them the ATM blank card and use it to collect money in any ATM machine and become rich. I also email him and he sent me the blank card. I have use it to get 70,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of $5,000 daily. Jack Robert is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode. email Him on how to get it now via: blankatmhaker@gmail.com or call/Text on +1(406) 350-4986

    ReplyDelete
  31. Hi Viewers Get your Blank ATM card that works in all ATM machines all over the world.. We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack ATM machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at stores and POS. We sell this cards to all interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $10,000 on ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores depending on the kind of card you order for, and also if you are in need of any other cyber hack services, Email LAMARCONNER4564@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
  32. Celebrate this Christmas season with joy and gladness in your heart...

    I would like to bring this to the notice of the public about how i met Funding Circle Loan PLC after i lost my job and been denied loan by my bank and other financial institution due to my credit score. I could not pay my children's fees. I was behind on bills, about to be thrown out of the house due to my inability to pay my rent, It was during this period my kids were taken from me by foster care. Then i set out to seek for funds online where i lost $3,670 that i borrowed from friends which i was rip off by two companies. Until i was referred to Funding Circle Plc by a very good friend, so if truly you are in need of a loan i advise you contact this Godsent lender via Email: fundingcapitalplc@gmail.com OR Call/Text +14067326622 and be free from scam' Jennie Cortez by name from United State


    ReplyDelete
  33. I GOT MY PROGRAMMED BLANK ATM CARD TO WITHDRAW A MAXIMUM OF $5000 DAILY.
    I AM SO EXCITED BECAUSE I ORDERED AND PAID FOR DELIVERY, DIDN'T GET SCAMMED, AND I NOW OWN MY HOME,
    MY BUSINESS HAS GROWN BIGGER.
    GEORG BEDNORZ (georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com) IS THE NAME OF THIS USA HACKER THAT GAVE ME THE CARD AND MADE MY
    FAMILY MORE HAPPIER THAN EVER.
    MAY GOD CONTINUE TO BLESS HIM BECAUSE HE IS HELPING THE POOR AND NEEDY SO ANYONE
    CAN CONTACT HIM VIA (georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
  34. Hello everyone i just want to share my experience with you all. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. They are really good at what they are doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist.
    They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTVs to detect you can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions.
    Two days later i received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me
    It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $1,000 daily. This Cards comes in Visa/MasterCard. Therefore it works at any ATM Machine that accept Visa/MasterCard Worldwide. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life. So far i have being able to withdraw up to $20,000 without any stress of being caught. I don't know why i am posting this here, i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. Mrs Susan has really change my life. If you want to contact them, Here is the email address}} atmmachine137@gmail.com
    And I believe they will also change your life too.
    Email: atmmachine137@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  35. CONTACT THEM FOR ALL KINDS OF HACKING JOB AT NOBLEHACKER284@GMAIL.COM
    They are professional group hackers based in Europe,Asia,Africa. Their services are 100% guaranteed so you have nothing to worry about, with their untraceable Penetration software. They offer the following services;
    -University grades changing
    -Bank accounts hack
    -Erase criminal records hack
    -Facebook hack
    -Twitters hack
    -email accounts hack
    -Grade Changes hack
    -Website crashed hack
    -server crashed hack
    -Skype hack
    -Databases hack
    -Word Press Blogs hack
    -Individual computers hack
    -Control devices remotely hack
    -Burner Numbers hack
    -Verified Paypal Accounts hack
    -Any social media account hack
    -Android & iPhone Hack
    -Text message interception hack
    -email interception hack
    - credit card for free online transactions
    -Sales of Blank Atm card and Credit card
    -Untraceable Ip etc.
    Contact them at NOBLEHACKER284@GMAIL.COM for more inquiry.

    ReplyDelete
  36. CONTACT THEM FOR ALL KINDS OF HACKING JOB AT NOBLEHACKER284@GMAIL.COM
    They are professional group hackers based in Europe,Asia,Africa. Their services are 100% guaranteed so you have nothing to worry about, with their untraceable Penetration software. They offer the following services;
    -University grades changing
    -Bank accounts hack
    -Erase criminal records hack
    -Facebook hack
    -Twitters hack
    -email accounts hack
    -Grade Changes hack
    -Website crashed hack
    -server crashed hack
    -Skype hack
    -Databases hack
    -Word Press Blogs hack
    -Individual computers hack
    -Control devices remotely hack
    -Burner Numbers hack
    -Verified Paypal Accounts hack
    -Any social media account hack
    -Android & iPhone Hack
    -Text message interception hack
    -email interception hack
    - credit card for free online transactions
    -Sales of Blank Atm card and Credit card
    -Untraceable Ip etc.
    Contact them at NOBLEHACKER284@GMAIL.COM for more inquiry.

    ReplyDelete

  37. Hello Guys,This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is Godsent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete

  38. Hello Guys,This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is Godsent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  39. Hello Guys,This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is Godsent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello Guys,This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is Godsent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  41. Hello Guys,This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is Godsent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  42. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $50,000 daily for a maximum of 20 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $100,000. MR Christopher is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from him. Just send him an email On blankatmcard661@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  43. MANY IMPOST AS HACKERS ONLINE, FRIENDS BEWARE. IF YOU NEED A GENUINE AND PROFESSIONAL HACKING SERVICES KINDLY CONTACT NOBLEWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM
    They are professional group of hackers based in Europe,Asia,UAE,North America. They are the best hackers and also software developers to penetrate any websites at all, all other hackers contact them for best Algorithm Software.Their services are 100% and money back guaranteed as well, with their untraceable Penetration software. They offer the following services;

    -SPYWARE FOR ALL SOCIAL MEDIA CONVERSATIONS
    -Itune card hacking
    -Removal of old credit score
    -University grades changing
    -Bank accounts hack
    -Erase criminal records hack
    -Facebook hack
    -Twitters hack
    -email accounts hack
    -Grade Changes hack
    -Website crashed hack
    -server crashed hack
    -Skype hack
    -Databases hack
    -Word Press Blogs hack
    -Individual computers hack
    -Control devices remotely hack
    -Burner Numbers hack
    -Verified Paypal Accounts hack
    -Any social media account hack
    -Android & iPhone Hack
    -Text message interception hack
    -email interception hack
    - credit card for free online transactions
    -Sales of Blank Atm card and Credit card
    -Untraceable Ip etc.
    Contact them at NOBLEWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM for more inquiries and you will never regret any of their services. Friends i refer you to them trust me.

    ReplyDelete